Latvian Military insignia

Insignia or insigne pl -nia or -nias (in Latin, insignia is the plural of singular insigne: emblem, symbol, ensign, badge of honor) : a symbol or token of personal power, status or office, or of an official body of government or jurisdiction. An insignia is usually the emblem of a specific or general authority.
A badge is a device, often containing the insignia of an organization, which is presented or displayed to indicate some feat of service, a special accomplishment, a symbol of authority granted by taking an oath (e.g., police and fire), a sign of legitimate employment, or as a simple means of identification.
A cockade is a knot of ribbons, or other circular- or oval-shaped symbol of distinctive colors which is usually worn on a hat.
Military ranks are a system of hierarchical relationships in armed forces, police or other institutions organized along military lines. Usually, uniforms denote the bearer’s rank by particular insignia affixed to the uniforms. Ranking systems have been known for most of military history to be advantageous for military operations, in particular with regards to logistics, command, and coordination; as time continued and military operations became larger and more complex, military ranks increased and ranking systems themselves became more complex.